About SSL Certificates
A SSL certificate is a way to encrypt a site’s information and create a more secure connection. Additionally, the certificate can show the server’s identification information to site visitors. Certificate Authorities can issue SSL certificates that verify the server’s details while a self-signed certificate has no 3rd party corroboration.
What the Red Means
The lines that the user needs to enter or customize will be in red in this tutorial!
The rest should mostly be copy-and-pastable.
The steps in this tutorial require the user to have root privileges on the server.
Additionally, you need to have apache already installed and running on your server.
If this is not the case, you can download it with this command:
sudo apt-get install apache2
Step One – Activate the SSL Module
The next step is to enable SSL.
sudo a2enmod ssl
Follow up by restarting Apache.
sudo service apache2 restart
Step Two – Create a New Directory
We need to create a new directory where we will store the server key and certificate
sudo mkdir /etc/apache2/ssl
Step Three – Create a Self Signed SSL Certificate
When we request a new certificate, we can specify how long the certificate should remain valid by changing the 365 to the number of days we prefer. As it stands this certificate will expire after one year.
sudo openssl req -x509 -nodes -days 365 -newkey rsa:2048 -keyout /etc/apache2/ssl/apache.key -out /etc/apache2/ssl/apache.crt
With this command, we will be both creating the self-signed SSL certificate and the server key that protects it, and placing both of them into the new directory.
This command will prompt terminal to display a lists of fields that need to be filled in.
The most important line is “Common Name”. Enter your official domain name here or, if you don’t have one yet, your site’s IP address.
You are about to be asked to enter information that will be incorporated into your certificate request.
What you are about to enter is what is called a Distinguished Name or a DN. There are quite a few fields but you can leave some blank For some fields there will be a default value, If you enter '.', the field will be left blank.
Country Name (2 letter code) [AU]:UK
State or Province Name (full name) [Some-State]:London
Locality Name (eg, city) :London
Organization Name (eg, company) [Internet Widgits Pty Ltd]:The Matrix Inc
Organizational Unit Name (eg, section) :CS21
Common Name (e.g. server FQDN or YOUR name) :yourdomain.com
Email Address :email@example.com
Step Four Set Up the Certificate
Now we have all of the required components of the finished certificate.The next thing to do is to set up the virtual hosts to display the new certificate.
Open up the SSL config file:
sudo nano /etc/apache2/sites-available/default
You should make the following changes.
Change the port on the virtual host to 443, the default SSL port:
Add a line with your server name right below the Server Admin email:
Replace yourdomain.com with your DNS approved domain name or server IP address (it should be the same as the common name on the certificate).
Add in the following three lines to your virtual host configuration, and make sure that they match the extensions below:
Save and Exit out of the file.
Step Five – Activate the New Virtual Host
Before the website that will come on the 443 port can be activated, we need to enable that Virtual Host:
sudo a2ensite default
You are all set. Restarting your Apache server will reload it with all of your changes in place.
sudo service apache2 reload
In your browser, type https://youraddress, and you will be able to see the new certificate.