How to Create a SSL Certificate on Apache for Ubuntu 12.04

How to Create a SSL Certificate on Apache for Ubuntu 12.04

About SSL Certificates A SSL certificate is a way to encrypt a…

How to Create a SSL Certificate on Apache for Ubuntu 12.04
How to Create a SSL Certificate on Apache for Ubuntu 12.04

About SSL Certificates

A SSL certificate is a way to encrypt a site’s information and create a more secure connection. Additionally, the certificate can show the server’s identification information to site visitors. Certificate Authorities can issue SSL certificates that verify the server’s details while a self-signed certificate has no 3rd party corroboration.

What the Red Means

The lines that the user needs to enter or customize will be in red in this tutorial!

The rest should mostly be copy-and-pastable.

Set Up

The steps in this tutorial require the user to have root privileges on the server.

Additionally, you need to have apache already installed and running on your server.
If this is not the case, you can download it with this command:

sudo apt-get install apache2

Linux

Installing rar/unrar On CentOS 6

Open up ssh client and connect to the server as root user.…

Open up ssh client and connect to the server as root user.

For 32bit:
wget http://pkgs.repoforge.org/rpmforge-release/rpmforge-release-0.5.2-2.el6.rf.i386.rpm

For 64bit:
wget http://pkgs.repoforge.org/rpmforge-release/rpmforge-release-0.5.2-2.el6.rf.x86_64.rpm

Install DAG’s GPG key:
rpm --import http://apt.sw.be/RPM-GPG-KEY.dag.txt

If you get an error message like the following the key has already been imported:
[error]error: http://apt.sw.be/RPM-GPG-KEY.dag.txt: key 1 import failed.[/error]

Linux

Installing rar/unrar On CentOS 5

Open up ssh client and connect to the server as root user.…

Open up ssh client and connect to the server as root user.

For 32bit:
wget http://pkgs.repoforge.org/rpmforge-release/rpmforge-release-0.5.2-2.el5.rf.i386.rpm

For 64bit:
wget http://pkgs.repoforge.org/rpmforge-release/rpmforge-release-0.5.2-2.el5.rf.x86_64.rpm

Install DAG’s GPG key:
rpm --import http://apt.sw.be/RPM-GPG-KEY.dag.txt

Linux

Apache Log Files on Server

Q. How do I find out Apache http server log files location?…

Q. How do I find out Apache http server log files location? How do I change the location of Apache log file under Linux / UNIX operating system?

A. There are two type of apache httpd server log files:

Apache Error Log File

All apache errors / diagnostic information other errors found during serving requests are logged to this file. Location of error log is set using ErrorLog directive. If there is any problem, you should first take a look at this file using cat, grep or any other UNIX / Linux text utilities. This apache log file often contain details of what went wrong and how to fix it. Default error log file location:

  • RHEL / Red Hat / CentOS / Fedora Linux Apache error file location – /var/log/httpd/error_log
  • Debian / Ubuntu Linux Apache error log file location – /var/log/apache2/error.log
  • FreeBSD Apache error log file location – /var/log/httpd-error.log
Linux

Mount The Drive on Linux Ubuntu Server

Determine Drive Information We assume that the hard drive is physically installed…

Determine Drive Information

We assume that the hard drive is physically installed and detected by the BIOS.

To determine the path that your system has assigned to the new hard drive, open a terminal and run:

sudo lshw -C disk

This should produce output similar to this sample:

*-disk
description: ATA Disk
product: IC25KOLAT564-0
vendor: Hitachi
physical id: 0
bus info: ide@0.0
logical name: /dev/sdb
version: C54671A
serial: XDfeSHKD556B
size: 37GB
capacity: 37GB

Deciding which partitions to mount

Most systems only have /dev/hda, which is the hard disk drive, and /dev/hdc, which is the CD-ROM, or optical, drive. If more were listed when the command above was run, they can be identified as follows: hda is the first drive on the first IDE channel (0:0), hdb is the second drive (0:1), hdc is the third drive (1:0), and hdd is the fourth (1:1). SCSI and S-ATA disks have names like sda and sdb.

Look through the list generated above to identify the partition(s) to be mounted. The following table lists some common ‘System’ types, which may help this process.

System name English name Linux type
W95 FAT32 Microsoft FAT32 vfat
W95 FAT32 (LBA) Microsoft FAT32 vfat
W95 FAT16 (LBA) Microsoft FAT16 vfat
W95 Ext’d (LBA) Microsoft extended partition Not used
NTFS volume set Microsoft NTFS ntfs
NTFS volume set Microsoft NTFS with read-write access ntfs-3g
Apple_HFS Apple HFS hfsplus

A list of the form ‘/dev/hda1: /media/windows/ (vfat)’, where ‘/dev/hda1’ is the device, ‘/media/windows’ is the arbitrary location where the partition will appear when mounted, and ‘vfat’ is the Linux type, should be created on paper, containing all partitions to be added.